Publikace ÚTF

The luminous red nova AT 2018bwo in NGC 45 and its binary yellow supergiant progenitor

Blagorodnova, Nadejda; Klencki, Jakub; Pejcha, Ondřej; Vreeswijk, Paul M. ; Bond, Howard E.; Burdge, Kevin B. ; De, Kishalay ; Fremling, Christoffer ; Gehrz, Robert D. ; Jencson, Jacob E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M. ; Kupfer, Thomas ; Lau, Ryan M. ; Masci, Frank J. ; Rich, Michael R.

Luminous red novae (LRNe) are astrophysical transients associated with the partial ejection of a binary system's common envelope shortly before its merger. Here we present the results of our photometric and spectroscopic follow-up campaign of AT 2018bwo (DLT 18x), a LRN discovered in NGC 45, and investigate its progenitor system using binary stellar-evolution models. The transient reached a peak magnitude of Mr = −10.97 ± 0.11 and maintained this brightness during its optical plateau of tp = 41 ± 5 days. During this phase, it showed a rather stable photospheric temperature of ∼3300 K and a luminosity of ∼1040 erg s−1. Although the luminosity and duration of AT 2018bwo is comparable to the LRNe V838 Mon and M31-2015LRN, its photosphere at early times appears larger and cooler, likely due to an extended mass-loss episode before the merger. Toward the end of the plateau, optical spectra showed a reddened continuum with strong molecular absorption bands. The IR spectrum at +103 days after discovery was comparable to that of a M8.5 II type star, analogous to an extended AGB star. The reprocessed emission by the cooling dust was also detected in the mid-infrared bands ∼1.5 years after the outburst. Archival Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescope data taken 10−14 yrs before the transient event suggest a progenitor star with Tprog ∼ 6500 K, Rprog ∼ 100 R⊙, and Lprog = 2 × 104 L⊙, and an upper limit for optically thin warm (1000 K) dust mass of Md < 10−6 M⊙. Using stellar binary-evolution models, we determined the properties of binary systems consistent with the progenitor parameter space. For AT 2018bwo, we infer a primary mass of 12-16 M⊙, which is 9-45% larger than the ∼11 M⊙ obtained using single-star evolution models. The system, consistent with a yellow-supergiant primary, was likely in a stable mass-transfer regime with −2.4 ≤ log(Ṁ/M⊙ yr−1) ≤ −1.2 a decade before the main instability occurred. During the dynamical merger, the system would have ejected 0.15-0.5 M⊙ with a velocity of ∼500 km s−1.
journal:Astronomy & Astrophysics
grants:Cat-In-hAT: Catastrophic Interactions of Binary Stars and the Associated Transients, Horizon 2020 ERC Starting Grant 803158; 2019-2023; hlavní řešitel: Ondřej Pejcha
blagorodnova_klencki_pejcha_etal_aa40525-21.pdf (6355.16 kB)

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